Types of confectionery products

 

Types of confectionery products

 

 

Confectionery , sweet products distinguished by a pleasant taste and aroma, have been loved by all of us since childhood. We sometimes call them that - sweets, sweets . As a rule, the main raw materials for cooking are flour (wheat, less often corn, rice, oatmeal, etc.), sugar, honey, fruits, berries, milk, cream, fats, eggs, yeast, starch, cocoa, nuts, food acids, gelling agents, flavoring and aromatic additives, food coloring and baking powder . The legendary culinary specialist and historian V.V. Pokhlebkin believed that in all types of confectionery dough, flour occupies a subordinate position (with the exception of dough for Easter cakes and gingerbread cookies), and there is no water.

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Depending on the ingredients used, all types of confectionery products are divided into two main groups: sugary and flour . And, although often a confectionery product contains elements of both groups, it is believed, however, that only one is the main one (for example, waffles with strawberries are floury, although the strawberry filling is sugary).

 

Sugary confectionery

Meringue
This French dessert consists of egg s whipped with sugar and baked. Cream of tartar or cornstarch (as a binding agent) are also sometimes used. Meringues are often flavored with vanilla and a little coconut or almond extract. These products are light and airy (like the Latin American dance merengue) and very sweet (French baiser - "kiss").

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Meringues

 

Jam, marmalade, confiture, yot
These are fruits or berries, flower petals boiled in sweet syrup, classified depending on the preparation technology and the consistency of the finished product. So, unlike jams, marmalade, confiture and marmalade, jam is prepared in such a way that the ingredients retain their shape. In addition, the jam has a heterogeneous consistency and consists of more or less liquid syrup and individual pieces of fruit, or even small fruits (figs, apples of paradise) and whole berries.

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Jam

Jam is a sweet thick mass of pureed fruits or berries boiled with sugar or molasses. Confiture is a type of jam, jelly with whole or chopped fruits or berries. The French gave us this word: confiture , from confit - candied. Marmalade is a culinary product made from fruits boiled with sugar with the addition of a thickener and flavoring additives (can be considered a type of thick jam). Substances such as pectin, agar-agar, and gelatin are used as a thickener. In English-speaking countries, the word marmalade means only jam made from citrus fruits (especially oranges).

 

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Marmalade

 

Yot is a type of Korean traditional sweet. Yot come in both solid and liquid (molasses), as well as with fillings. They are made from steamed rice, glutinous rice, glutinous sorghum, corn, sweet potato or a mixture of these grains. After steaming, it is fermented briefly and then boiled for a long time in a large cauldron. If it is cooked longer, it hardens as it cools . Immediately after cooking, it is usually brown in color, but if it is stretched, the color lightens.

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Ginger eat

 

Grillage
Grillage (French grillage "frying") is a French dessert made from fried nuts with sugar. Comes from coarsely ground eastern halva. Confectioners divide roasted meat into two types: soft roasted meat - includes boiled fruits and crushed nuts; hard roasted nuts are crushed nuts covered in melted sugar.

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Soft roasted meat

 

Jelly
Jelly (from the French Geée - jelly, gel, jelly) is a food colloidal solution (usually fruit-based), to which gelatin (pectin, agar ) is added, and when cooled, the whole mass takes on a gelatinous appearance. Fruit jellies from fruits and fruits containing a lot of pectin can be obtained without adding gelatin to them, since pectin itself gives the syrup a gelatinous appearance. Most often, such jelly is made from sour apples, mainly Antonov apples, and then colored with spinach green and carmine red.

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Layered jelly

 

Marshmallow
Marshmallow is a genus of sugary confectionery; It is obtained by churning fruit and berry puree with sugar and egg , followed by adding to this mixture any of the form-forming (gelling) fillers: pectin, agar syrup, gelatin (marmalade) mass. Zephyr was prepared back in Ancient Greece, where it received its name from the name of the god Zephyr, according to myths, who gave its recipe to people.
Pastila (from the French pastille ) is a sweet dish of Russian cuisine. Until the beginning of the 20th century, the word was often written " postila " (understanding it as something laid out, spread, which is associated with the technology of making pastila). Pastila was made from whipped apple puree, sour Russian varieties (Antonovka, Titovka, Zelenka), as well as berry pulp (lingonberries, rowanberries, raspberries, currants). The second important component of marshmallow is honey, and since the 19th century also sugar. The third (optional) component of marshmallow, used since the 15th century, is egg , which was needed to give the marshmallow a color. Traditionally, pastila was made in a Russian oven: it produces the effect of gradually decreasing heat, which ensures uniform drying of a paste of applesauce, honey, sugar and protein, applied in a thin layer to fabric on wooden frames. Several layers of paste that have undergone initial drying are layered on top of each other, after which they undergo secondary drying in wooden alder boxes in an oven.

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Marshmallow

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Paste

 

Sweets, toffee, caramel, lollipops
Small sweets in the form of balls, bars, pillows made of caramelized sugar, chocolate, molasses, condensed milk and other products. Toffee is a fondant mass obtained by boiling condensed milk with sugar, molasses (molasses) and fat (butter or vegetable oil or margarine). In crushed form it is sold as candy. Caramel (French caramel , from Late Latin cannamella - "sugar cane") is a confectionery product or an ingredient of such a product, obtained by heating sugar or boiling a sugar solution with starch syrup or invert syrup. It is a plastic or solid mass (depending on the heating temperature) of various shades of yellow and brown (without additional coloring), contains sucrose, maltose and glucose. Candy is a type of candy, a chewy or hard mass made from candy - boiled until hard, usually flavored sugar with molasses or corn syrup. Often attached to a stick.

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Split iris

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Candy caramel

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Lollipops

 

Creams
Cream is a paste made from cream or butter with sugar, used as a filling and for decorating cakes and pastries. Instead of butter, margarine can be used, and eggs, milk, as well as various flavoring and aromatic additives: cocoa powder, vanilla, etc. can be used as additional ingredients.

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Cake decorated with cream

 

Marzipan

Marzipan (German Marzipan , Italian marzapane ) is a mixture of floured almonds and sugar syrup (or powdered sugar). If apricot kernels (less commonly peach kernels) are used instead of almonds, the confectionery product is not called marzipan, but persipan . Sometimes marzipan is also called a mass of other nuts, as well as products with it. For example, buns called "marzipan" with peanuts are common in Russia.

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Marzipan fruits

 

Mousses
Mousse (French mousse "foam") is a sweet dessert dish. A signature dish of French cuisine. It is prepared from an aromatic base (fruit or berry juice, puree, grape wine, chocolate, coffee, cocoa, etc.), nutrients that contribute to the formation and fixation of the foamy state of the mousse (egg s, gelatin, agar ), as well as nutrients that give the dish has a sweet taste or enhances it (sugar, saccharin, honey, molasses). Sometimes, instead of egg s and gelatin, a substitute is used in the form of semolina, which can swell well and has adhesive properties, which allows you to approximately imitate the desired state of the dish.

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Chocolate mousse

 

Fondant
Fondant mass (fondant) is boiled sugar syrup, quickly cooled to a temperature of 35-40 and stirred at high speed in a fondant whipping machine. When churning in a supersaturated syrup, sucrose crystallizes. The finished product consists of small sugar crystals and intercrystalline syrup. Fondant varies greatly in consistency - from liquid, viscous types with a high content of molasses to a hard, brittle product that is obtained from a less moist syrup with a small admixture of molasses. Used mainly for the production of uncoated sweets and for decorating cakes.
Depending on the presence of milk, three main types of fondant are distinguished: sugar fondant - made from sugar syrup without the addition of milk; milk or cream lipstick - based on sugar syrup with a small or medium addition of milk or cream; Creme brulee is a sugar syrup with a high content of milk or cream after undergoing heat treatment, which gives the product a brown tint and the taste of baked milk.

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Cake glazed with sugar fondant

 

Sambuca
A chilled, fluffy dish prepared by beating fruit puree with sugar and egg .

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Sambuca black currant

 

Soufflé
Soufflé (French: Souffé ) is a dish of French origin made from egg yolks mixed with a variety of ingredients, to which -beaten egg s are then added. Can be a main dish or a sweet dessert. In any case, the soufflé contains at least two components: firstly, a flavored mixture of sour cream consistency and, secondly, egg s beaten until . The first gives the taste, and the whipped s give the airiness of the product. The mixture is usually made on the basis of cottage cheese, chocolate or lemon (the latter two are used to prepare a dessert by adding sugar). The soufflé is cooked in the oven in a fireproof container; it swells greatly due to the temperature, but when removed from the oven, it collapses after 20-30 minutes.

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Chocolate soufflé with powdered sugar

 

Halva, Turkish delight and other oriental sweets
All kinds of cookies, raisin -nut and starch -sugar products, common in the Middle East and Central Asia.

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Halva

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Typical example of fruit Turkish delight (pomegranate)

 

Candied fruits
Candied fruits (Polish cukaty , from cukier - "sugar") are juicy fruits boiled in sugar or sugar syrup. Candied fruits are used as a filling in biscuit, muffin, butter, shortbread, yeast dough and as a separate decorative element for decorating cakes, pastries, cookies, rolls, puff pastries. For desserts it is used as a filling and decoration at the same time. Candied citrus peels are prepared by slowly boiling in syrup until transparent, glassy pulp and high sugar content are obtained. The boiled peels are thrown onto a sieve, separated from the syrup, allowed to drain, and then dried.

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Candied fruit

 

Chocolate
Chocolate is a confectionery product based on cocoa butter, which is a product of processing cocoa beans - the seeds of the chocolate tree, rich in theobromine and caffeine. Chocolate products often contain flavorings (coffee, alcohol, cognac, vanillin, pepper), food additives (raisins, nuts, wafers, candied fruits) or filling.

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Bar chocolate

 

Flour confectionery products

Cake
Cake (from Italian torta , "round bread") is a dessert consisting of one or more cake layers soaked in cream or jam. The top of the cake is usually decorated with cream, icing and/or fruit.

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Cake " Fraisier "​

 

Cookies
Cookies are small confectionery products baked from dough. Various grains are sometimes added to cookie dough; cookies are usually shaped in the form of circles, squares, stars, tubes; Sometimes cookies are made with filling (chocolate, raisins, condensed milk, cream) or the filling is placed between two cookies.

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Waffles
Waffle (from German Waffel ) is a type of thin dry cookie with an imprint on the surface. Baked from whipped batter in special molds. The dough consists of flour, eggs, sugar and cream. Waffles get their name from the Middle Low German word " wâfel ". The Danish form " wafel " changed to waffle in the 18th century and entered the Russian language in this form. Pieces of waffles are often smeared with cream among themselves. Ice cream or berries can be used. Fat, fruit and berry, praline , fondant and other fillings are used for the layer. Can be used as a base for other confectionery products (cakes, pastries). For these purposes, waffle products are made in the form of sheets, cakes, cups, tubes, and cones.

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Belgian waffles

 

Sweet pies, pies, cheesecakes, rolls, donuts, muffins, rum baba
Bakery products made from yeast, puff pastry, unleavened dough, choux pastry and other doughs of various shapes and sizes, with or without filling, baked or fried. A pie is a dish of dough with a filling that is baked or fried. The filling for pies can be different - berries, fruits, cottage cheese, poppy seeds, etc. A pie is a small dish of yeast dough with filling, which is baked (in the oven) or fried (in deep fryers, small pans or cauldrons). The name is derived from the word pie. Cheesecake is a round flatbread with filling, open at the top and pinched only at the edges. As a rule, cottage cheese is used as a filler, less often mashed potatoes, jam or marmalade. A product of ancient Slavic, Russian and Ukrainian cuisine. The name of the dish comes from the word " vatra " - "hearth, fire". Cheesecakes are baked from yeast, butter and unleavened dough. Donut - round, fried in oil, usually sweet, a pie with or without a hole in the middle. The hole is intended to ensure that the donut removed from the hot oil is threaded onto a rod, from which the product is then placed in a bag or on a plate for the buyer. A donut can have a filling: jam, marmalade, marmalade, etc. A cupcake is a sweet confectionery product with raisins, jam or nuts, usually baked from yeast or sponge dough and traditionally served at weddings or Christmas. Cupcakes can be baked rectangular or round (with a hole through the center, which will give it the shape of a large ring). The closest relative of the cupcake is Russian Kulich. Rum baba is a confectionery product of Slavic origin; it is a type of cake made from rich yeast dough with the addition of raisins. After baking, it is soaked in syrup made from rum or another alcoholic drink and sugar, or simply sugar syrup, sometimes with the addition of jam. The top of the cupcake is coated with fudge sugar. Often called "rum-baba".

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Cheesecake with cottage cheese

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Donut

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Cake

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Baba

 

Gingerbread cookies,
Gingerbread is a flour confectionery product baked from special gingerbread dough; For taste, honey, nuts, candied fruits, raisins, fruit or berry jam can be added. In appearance, a gingerbread most often consists of a rectangular, round or oval-shaped plate slightly convex in the middle; an inscription or a simple design is usually made on the upper part, often with a layer of confectionery sugar glaze applied on top. Gingerbread comes from the adjective spicy ( Old Russian " "), which, in turn, is derived from the word "pepper" (Old Russian " "), which meant spices and seasonings.
Rug is a product made from gingerbread dough ranging in size from very small to 1-1.5 meters in length, up to 1 meter in width, and 6-10 centimeters in height. The weight of the gingerbread sometimes reaches a pound or more. A popular dish of Russian cuisine. The word "kovrizhka" comes from "kovriga", which means whole bread. The history of gingerbread and gingerbread in Rus' begins in the 9th century, only then they were called honey cakes and were made from flour, honey and berry juice.

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Tula printed gingerbread

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Kovrizhka

 

Cakes, eclairs
A cake is a small-sized confectionery product made from sweet butter dough, usually with a cream filling. Eclair (from French. éclair - "lightning, flash") is a French dessert in the form of an oblong pie made of choux pastry with cream (usually custard). The creation of the eclair is attributed to the French cook Marie-Antoine Caréme . It became widespread in the 19th century.

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Cake

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Eclairs in chocolate and sugar glaze